Piping Load Calculation

Normally a tee section attached to the pipe or a pipe clamp to transmit. Pipe Shoe. Projects that require Seismic design to be implemented, there needs to be an equivalent static seismic analysis in the software to evaluate seismic stresses, displacements and loads on the piping systems. Includes 53 different calculations. Document design calculations for pipe support referenced in calculations title. 5 D R = 5. One pipe supporting an evenly distributed load (Fig. If it is not desirable to use a particular pipe in such shallow installations, please notify us in the calculations. Pipe Stress Analysis Software ASME B31 Code Compliance TRIFLEX® Windows is a Piping System Stress Analysis Software & Design Program that provides user-friendly data entry, an extremely flexible output report generator and superior input & output graphics. where p is the load per unit length along the beam, and L is the length of the beam. industrial process instruments and controls: tel: 1-925-706-7433 fax: 1-925-706-2583. This paper presents a new calculation method that can calculate the load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load. Used in a basket hitch with the legs at a 90° angle to the load, it would have a working load limit of 1,000 lbs. The specifics of hydraulic calculation. Therefore, the Calculated Potential Useful Load Remaining field is a guideline only! Do NOT guess; check it prior to each flight! UTC, Coordinated Universal Time, popularly known as GMT (Greenwich Mean Time), or Zulu time, and local times are displayed to authenticate you calculation should you wish to print it. If the connection is modeled as rigid, the resulting nozzle loads increase significantly which is not realistic. 15 up to 24 inch ID • 1. Pipe are assumed to be filled with water modulus of elasticity of carbon steel pipe (A106 Gr. Cast Iron, PVC, ABS, and CPVC pipe and fittings for plumbing and industrial systems. length L is known and the compressive load has been set, then the design for buckling of a column reduces to three issues: (1) settle on the end or boundary conditions and determine its effective length L eff (KL in Hibbeler, 1997), (2) determine the material, second moment of area product EI. The four main functions of a pipe support are to anchor, guide, absorb shock, and support a specified load. 3 Conditions Requiring Calculation. Beam Deflection Calculators - Solid Rectangular Beams, Hollow Rectangular Beams, Solid Round Beams Enter value and click on calculate. 25 65 k A36 A36 5 x ½ 3/8 in. Reroofing Allowance. Type of pipe (Copper, steel, cast iron, insulated, non-insulated, etc. We get many questions asking us to calculate the volume of topsoil, gravel, water, concrete, etc. Pipe Line Velocity Calculator: Enter value, select unit and click on calculate. Current Density At The Surface of Earth Electrode (As per IS 3043):. In this section will be information about the allowable (ex. Type of scaffold materials like cup lock or pipe fittings or ring lock etc. ASTM C 443 / ASSHTO M315. If the braked wheel is very light on an incline then it is possible the tyre will slip before the brake. Experiments have been performed with the same unit, the data of which are utilized for the model validation. xls 07_Touch Potential 2-Wire Circuit. This corresponds to an equivalent load of 6 in (150 mm) lines full of water covered with 2 in (50 mm) thick insulation, and spaced on 12 in (300 mm) centers. Wind Load Calculator Excel Spreadsheet ASCE705W ASCE 7-05 Written for analysis of air load for code and structures for Spreadsheets program written in MS-Excel. The calculator below can used to calculate the resulting force in a piping bend: Metric Units. Pipe Support Calculator - Dummy leg and Trunnion calculations. Magnitude of the wind load is the result of momentum wind on pipe. 01” load = 1350 (D-Load) x 8’ (length of pipe) x 2. Head coefficient and head loss across angled louvers inside a pipe equation and calculator. 2 plf In this truss example, there are few assumptions made for the calculations to work. Hydro test loads, if applicable for the line. pdf), Text File (. 5 Inch 2 Inch 3 Inch 4 Inch 6 Inch 8 Inch 10 Inch 12 Inch 14 Inch 16 Inch 18 Inch 20 Inch 24 Inch 26 Inch 28 Inch 30 Inch 32 Inch 34 Inch 36 Inch 38 Inch 40 Inch 42 Inch 44 Inch 46 Inch 48 Inch 50 Inch 52 Inch 54 Inch 56 Inch 58 Inch 60 Inch. 3) All Loads are in pounds (lbs. 5 D i L L i o t O. Information displayed: Side One. 0 (PDF) LRFR of In-Service Metal Pipe Structures Calculator. Pipe load calculator solving for vacuum load per linear length of pipe given internal vacuum pressure and inside pipe diameter. Pipe with diameters of 4- to 48-inch installed subjected to AASHTO HL-93, H-25 or HS-25 traffic loads must have at least one foot cover over the pipe crown, while 60-inch diameter pipe must have at least 18 inches of cover. What used to be a pencil-breaking task is now mouse-click easy. 2 as follows: 2( ) PD t SEW PY (1. Bobco Metals provides businesses and home users with fast, easy and reliable cut to size Steel, Stainless Steel, Aluminum and hardware supplies in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Departure. Too much stress on the pipes might cause leakage or fracture which might result in a multitude of problems. 16 to 23 BTUs per square foot per hour is a standard rule of thumb. Enter your values: Flow Rate. Result will be displayed. There are some additions to the ASCE 7, such as Tsunami Loads, and refined seismic Loads. ρ - density of fluid (kg/m 3) d - int. " See also ANSI B31. Welcome to the Conduit Fill Calculator website. 40 m \lower invert elevation = Upper invert elevation – fall of sewer. Cast Iron, PVC, ABS, and CPVC pipe and fittings for plumbing and industrial systems. External load design includes calculation of both ring bending stress and. Seismic Loads. The waves load was calculated for the safety of floating pipeline, as it was the main load for a pipeline in the sea. pdf), Text File (. Standard Specification for Reinforced Concrete Low-Head Pressure Pipe. The calculation is applicable only for uniform pipe without any attached concentrated weight, such as a valve. Enter Duct Airflow (CFM), Duct Velocity (FPM), Duct Length and the number of bends. Also, please state the purpose of this. Note: Normally for ultimate limit state no specific calculations are necessary for thermal loads. Figure 1 - Diagram of distances along the string. What we need is P' which is defined as the equivalent axial load which would be required to produce a maximum bending moment (M) in the column. The method Involves a combined calculation of the internal hoop stress in the pipe that results from the operating pressure of the pipeline and the external stresses that result from dead load, live load, and impact load· ing. 2) do explicitly require that the partition load be include in the effective seismic weight of the building. Common solution for combined loading Loading in the plane perpendicular to the weld plane induces a tensile or pressure stress σ in the weld. Chilled water piping utilizes parallel piping systems with a two-pipe main distribution system arranged in loop. Calculate amount of bricks for building different size walls, number of brick lanes upright and load for foundation. It has been many years in college since I did this calculation so I was hoping someone could walk me through so I don't make a mistake. The steel pipe reducer weight formula is 0. 3 of ASME B31. Earth load is based upon the prism load concept, a very conservative assumption for loads normally experienced by a flexible pipe. Show all suspended piping for a given floor on the same plain. 3281 is greater than or equal to UG-45 value of 0. Low cost engineering calculations software available for convection heat transfer coefficients, pipe flow/friction factor calculations, partially full pipe flow calculations, watershed time of concentration, rational method, orifice and venturi meter flow rate calculations, open channel flow measurement, activated sludge wastewater. Concrete pipe is noncombustible. If we need cutting teeth, turning slots, or any other features, they’re where we need them to be and done right. ENGINEERING. Calculation for a straight pipe under external pressure is referenced in section 304. xls 05_Short-Circuit Calculator_v7. Piping load calculation - Free download as PDF File (. MSS SP-58-2018 offers a guideline that seeks to address issues that might arise around pipe hangers and supports. OR1ONiAL This calculation verifies pipe support. Use the Load Tool on line in real time, then download the results for your projects. Visit us to find out more information about Freight Brokers. xls 09_Transmission Line Calculator. Beam Deflection Calculators - Solid Rectangular Beams, Hollow Rectangular Beams, Solid Round Beams. ASCE 7-05 section 4. We carry a large inventory of steel tubing and steel pipe. The size of each section of gas piping shall be determined using the total length of piping from the meter to the most remote outlet and the load of that section (see calculation example in “Figure A” use steps 1- 6 below: Sizing of Piping Sections To determine the size of each section of pipe in any system using piping specific. Suggested Piping Sizes: Pump suction lines should be sized so the fluid velocity is between 2 and 4 feet per second. 0260 = WEIGHT PER METRE. The ACCA Manual J will provide you with both a block load for the entire house and a room-by-room heat loss estimate. Calculate amount of bricks for building different size walls, number of brick lanes upright and load for foundation. Now we can calculate the exact weight of a steel rebar using the above simple formula. xls 08_Touch Potential 3-Wire Circuit. • ASME/ANSI B16. Bellows: Metallic & Fabric Expansion Joints, Bellows Sweco Fab: ASME Vessels, Pig Launchers, Spectacle Blinds Pipe Shields: Pre-Insulated Pipe Supports, Slides, Guides & Anchors Fronek Anchor/Darling: Snubbers, Sway Struts & Sway Braces. 6 which is not enough for this example. Piping Technology & Products, Inc. Includes 53 different calculations. One must check the load limits of that particular support to determine it's full load carrying capacity. Online calculator to quickly determine Condensate Load From Piping at Start-up. During tightening of a fastener with a torque wrench, torque value is measured and. Cut Length Calculation 17 Roof Framing 18 Roof Details 19–20 Roof Load Tables 21 Framing Connectors 22–23 TABLE OF CONTENTS WELCOME TO iLEVEL iLevel is an exciting new brand and business within Weyerhaeuser. 2 WHY IS PIPING ENGINEERING SO DIFFICULT? On the surface, pipe is pretty simple – a round bar with a hole in it to transport a fluid or gas. 1 gallon (U. The seismic requirements (ASCE 7-05 12. version of all seven of the spreadsheets described below in this category, that is: 1) Pipe Flow Calcns-Incompressible Laminar or Turbulent Flow, 2) Natural Gas Pipeline Flow Calculations, 3) Compressible Pipe Flow-Fanno Flow Calculator, 4) Hazen Williams Pipe Flow Calculations Package, 5) Moody Friction Factor Calculator, 6) Min Pipe Wall Thickness. Typically, structural engineers designing “I” beams or T beams calculate section modulus of the cross-sectional area of the beam to understand if the beam will support a particular load or repeated cyclic loading. This pipe support spacing calculation was developed based upon equations contained in section 6. Experiments have been performed with the same unit, the data of which are utilized for the model validation. Report options - Comprehensive one page summary or full calculation details. The CivilWeb Buried Pipe Design spreadsheet includes a calculation tool for estimating the vertical pressure acting on a pipe from up to 16 concentrated point loads on the surface. This calculator was developed in accordance with the equations and procedures found in the Handbook of PVC Pipe Design and Construction (5th Edition). Download also: Pump Head Calculation Spreadsheet and Pipe Sizer Software In chilled water system the chilled water circulates through a chilled water loop and through coils located in air handlers. 4-16 Equivalent Static Load 10 Scharton & Pankow 5 - See Appendix C. If you are replacing the entire system, boiler plus radiators or radiant flooring, then a room-by- room calculation must be performed. In the above example, the vertical portions of the roll bar will each be 40 inches (100 cm) long, the diagonal portions will each be 14 inches (70. Standard Calculation Procedure 1. The loading calculation requires the use of a Saturation Factor (S factor) listed in Table 5. I want to know how tall of a steel pipe I can have before it fails when it see a fixed load at the top. For example: 10" construction tube 6 feet long: 6 ft x 0. To calculate the load, is very important the total weigth because it will play an importat role in case of seismic loads for example. Online calculator to quickly determine Condensate Load From Piping at Start-up. I want to know how tall of a steel pipe I can have before it fails when it see a fixed load at the top. Screw Gear Axial Force Calculation Axial thrust or load applied per the applied on a screw (worm gear) thread calculate the axial thrust of a nut. For a new pressure piping system fabricated in Alberta: 06/08/2008 Rev. Wall thickness = tn * 0. Sir, how we can decide the roller diameter if we want to make the pipe of 25 to 50 mm dia. PVC has a much higher stiffness (modulus) compared to other plastic pipe which limits long term deformation under soil load. Reynolds Number: 44 Re DV DV Q m DD ρ µ ν πν π µ = = = = where. By only looking at the bottom side of the kevlar wrap as in Figure 1, where the dotted line is the fiber going behind the nylon core, we can calculate the angle, , the fiber is at. (Assuming the Downpipe was sized in the Downpipe calculator ) A Down pipe size is more dependent on the perimeter of the pipe (circular weir, or orifice) at the entrance, than the cross sectional area. This calculator will compute the acceptable Allied galvanized steel tubing product size based on length and load criteria. This pipe thickness calculator calculates required pipe thickness for a process pipe based on ASME B31. Calculate weight of pipe and tank/vessel volumes: Alex Tomanovich: 2018 07: Wind_Analysis_per_ASCE_7_10: This demo design sheet does wind analysis per latest ASCE 7-10 code. Used in a basket hitch with the legs at a 60° angle to the load, it would have a working load limit of 866 lbs. Torsion is expressed in either the Pascal (Pa), an SI unit for newtons per square metre, or in pounds per square inch (psi) while torque is expressed in newton metres (N·m) or foot-pound force (ft·lbf). 4-16 Equivalent Static Load 10 Scharton & Pankow 5 - See Appendix C. Stainless Steel Pipe View All ; 304 304L Stainless Steel Pipe; 316 316L Stainless Steel Pipe; Aluminum Pipe. Within the piping system, if the thermal expansion stress intensity range at a certain. The term pipe flow in this course is being taken to mean flow under pressure in a pipe, piping system, or closed conduit with a non-circular cross-section. Pipe Rack Load Calculation Vikoll (Mechanical) (OP) 11 Feb 08 14:02. industrial process instruments and controls: tel: 1-925-706-7433 fax: 1-925-706-2583. • AASHTO Standard Spec • 1. 02 x 120 = 2. that pipe or equipment, someone will be – and their safety should always be in your mind when considering if all appropriate considerations have been made, and the calculations are accurate. Software system dPIPE Flexibility and stress analysis of piping systems. For a wide flange section this is parallel to the web. Includes 53 different calculations. -thick material being bent over a 0. Calculate wind and flood loads using ASCE 7-05 (Section D. Fill out the information below and it will show you which radiators work best for your heating needs. Just to remind you, we’ll follow the ASME BPVC Section VIII Division 1 Appendix 2 ((ASME, “Mandatory Appendix 2 Rules for Bolted Flange Connections with Ring Type Gasket”, in “ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Section VIII Division 1 – Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels. Probably double that to 120 kg to account for F=ma over bumps. This sling has a Working Load Limit of 500 lbs. Piping loads that can be imposed on machinery nozzles (such as those of pumps, compressors, etc. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Adding to SkyCiv's already list of free tools, is the new Wind Load Calculator for ASCE 7-10, AS 1170. Piping Spacing Calculator Details for Pipe 1 NPD: 1/2 Inch 3/4 Inch 1 Inch 1. Okay, now that you know the types of flanges and facings, we can begin to talk about how to design it. After I calculated load due to dead weight of water filled piping including. Suggested Piping Sizes: Pump suction lines should be sized so the fluid velocity is between 2 and 4 feet per second. The original "Piping Selector 150/300" has been used for over 18 years by engineers, designers, fabricators and students as an excellent industry data source. Software system dPIPE Flexibility and stress analysis of piping systems. Reviews the significance of various physical and chemical factors, which determine the durability, design and performance of concrete pipe. OVERSPEED VALVE: Provide a safety (rupture) valve in each oil hydraulic line in accordanc e with Rule 3. Used in a basket hitch with the legs at a 90° angle to the load, it would have a working load limit of 1,000 lbs. com Our Parent Company: Piping Technology Pipe Supports, Pipe Clamps, Pipe Hardware & Insulated Pipe Shoes. If you are replacing only a boiler and leaving the existing baseboard or radiant floor piping in place, then a simple whole house (block load) calculation will determine the new boiler size. industrial process instruments and controls: tel: 1-925-706-7433 fax: 1-925-706-2583. Document design calculations for pipe support referenced in calculations title. Equation 2 is a function of this integration. The waves load was calculated for the safety of floating pipeline, as it was the main load for a pipeline in the sea. For a snug fit at the outside of the tube, enter 0 Cut Tube Wall Thick and grind inside of tube to fit. Enter Duct Airflow (CFM), Duct Velocity (FPM), Duct Length and the number of bends. API 650 CALCULATIONS DATA FOR ANALYSIS Displacement for Settlement of Tank (vector1) Displacement for Bulging & expansion tank (vector 2) 21. on a 5 pound pressure drop for the entire piping run, from 50' to 250'. The calculation is applicable only for uniform pipe without any attached concentrated weight, such as a valve. 11 DiMaggio, Sako, Rubin n Eq (22) See Appendices B and D for the equation to calculate n via the Rayleigh distribution. 9, ANSI B31. As a minimum, the Piping Stress Engineer shall ensure that the loads on the Nozzle of the Mechanical Equipments are within these values. ) 3) Required Thickness for Bending Pipe. 5’ (Diameter of pipe in decimal form) = 27000 lbs. The term pipe flow in this course is being taken to mean flow under pressure in a pipe, piping system, or closed conduit with a non-circular cross-section. This pipe stiffness value exceeds common flexible pipe stiffnesses. 5 inches which would give a section modulus of 1. Interactive calculation of heating/cooling loads. Load calculations use ASHRAE® Transfer Function Method. For a new pressure piping system fabricated in Alberta: 06/08/2008 Rev. 7 PIPE AND FITTINGS. OVERSPEED VALVE: Provide a safety (rupture) valve in each oil hydraulic line in accordanc e with Rule 3. This calculation method is one I came up with. Couldn't really tell any difference. Low cost engineering calculations software available for convection heat transfer coefficients, pipe flow/friction factor calculations, partially full pipe flow calculations, watershed time of concentration, rational method, orifice and venturi meter flow rate calculations, open channel flow measurement, activated sludge wastewater. This is designed so that the designer can accurately model any likely combination of plant and equipment which may load the pipe. Seismic Loads. Spacing and capacities are based on water filled pipe. pdf), Text File (. Pipe produced in accordance with ASTM A53 comes in two grades with a yield strength of 205 MPa (30,000 psi) and 240 MPa (35,000 psi) respectively. In the above example, the vertical portions of the roll bar will each be 40 inches (100 cm) long, the diagonal portions will each be 14 inches (70. Enter your values: Flow Rate. It does this by adding its own weight to the load side of the fulcrum, and by moving the truck’s load center forward. The proposed foundation for the home is a system of steel pipe piles, a reinforced concrete grade beam, and concrete columns extending from the grade beam to the elevated structure. 1 (800) 474-8064; Get Authority. Working Load Formulas To calculate load: F = kx. 01” load = 1350 (D-Load) x 8’ (length of pipe) x 2. Pipe View All ; Stainless Steel Pipe. ASTM C 443 / ASSHTO M315. Example: Calculations for a 30” Class III 8’ length pipe used to determine minimum readings required for acceptance in the test rack are as follows: 0. If you know the slope rather than the pipe length and drop, then enter "1" in "Length" and enter the slope in "Drop". 3 Conditions Requiring Calculation. It arises from the shear force, the component of force vector parallel to the material cross section. System temperature in excess of 150°C (300 F). Departure. Show all suspended piping for a given floor on the same plain. If you want to do calculations for a horizontal cylinder, then go to this link: Horizontal Cylinder Calculator. ASTM C 361. This calculator was developed in accordance with the equations and procedures found in the Handbook of PVC Pipe Design and Construction (5th Edition). Standard Calculation Procedure 1. Local stress at the point of slipper attachment Piping design codes (eg. NOTE: The breaker must be sized no larger in amp size than the ampacity rating of a conductor after de-ration calculations have been performed to find the maximum ampacity of. Pipe Solutions Thermal Expansion Guide. * Many codes require pipe hangers to be spaced every 10 ft. The purpose of this tool is to assist industry professionals in the evaluation and selection of HDPE pipe by performing design calculations documented in the PPI-Handbook of Polyethylene Pipe, 2nd Edition. ALUMINIUM PIPE. It can automatically calculate all parameters including topographic factor and gust effect factor for flexible structures. In particular, air pressure is calculated by coefficients and corresponding parameters and net design calculations or calculation of air pressure. You can also apply a vertical load so that the module can calculate the vertical bearing load on the footing for each load combination. The load factor is:. Used in a basket hitch with the legs at a 90° angle to the load, it would have a working load limit of 1,000 lbs. Simply enter your email address and then click on 'Get the Download Links' and you will instantly receive an email with a link allowing you to install the software. Normally a tee section attached to the pipe or a pipe clamp to transmit. These minimum cover heights are. beam load (udl) 1 x 4 tray 4x2 tray empty space (udl) int. Sample Problem Statement. In the event the loads are exceeding the allowable loads values, prior approval from the supplier shall be taken. We hope to provide you with the best online conduit fill calculator, as well as all relevant information regarding conduits, conduit fill, conduit accessories, and more! This online conduit fill calculator is compatible with the US National Electrical Code (NEC)!. Standard Calculation Procedure 1. , the load center distance would be greater than 24 inches) or that has an offset center of gravity (i. This totals. The natural frequency of the pipe depends on its stiffness and its mass; the stiffer the pipe the higher the frequency, the more mass the pipe (including contents) has, the lower the natural frequency. 2 as follows: 2( ) PD t SEW PY (1. 3-2014 section 304. Earth load is based upon the prism load concept, a very conservative assumption for loads normally experienced by a flexible pipe. Proof load: The maximum load (force) that a bolt can withstand without acquiring a permanent set. Total Square feet of dwelling Total # of Small Appliance Branch circuits (must be at least 2). MSS SP-58-2018 offers a guideline that seeks to address issues that might arise around pipe hangers and supports. The S factor of 0. 1 Calculate and check the design strength of the connection shown below. com Buried Pipe Calculator (excel application) has been designed as a training tool to help users to calculate code stress and strain and their corresponding criteria for both. The correctness of the calculation determines whether the gas pipeline will function optimally. 304540999 Pipe Support Design Calculation Report 1 - Free download as PDF File (. However, proper pipe support must be constructed on the bottom of the pipe to distribute the load. The CivilWeb Buried Pipe Design spreadsheet includes a calculation tool for estimating the vertical pressure acting on a pipe from up to 16 concentrated point loads on the surface. Updated: January, 2019. 8 m cover the pipe stress is higher and 10-20% above the allowable value (varies depending on soil type). This calculator will compute the acceptable Allied galvanized steel tubing product size based on length and load criteria. Loads applied "Along Y-Y" are applied parallel to the Y-Y axis of the steel section. Thermal Systems provides boiler calculations, for steam boiler loads, boiler efficiency, hot water loads, thermal load, boiler operating cost. Plant 3D pipe flow/pressure calculations Anyone here have any advise on what program to use for making pipe calculations? Currently we use a program called "Pipe Flow Expert" to calculate pressure drops and flow rates, but this has some downsides. Berkeley Electronic Press Selected Works. Gross bending stress due to the weight of the pipe, contents and insulation. Such increased operating temperatures applied on “stiffer” systems increase pipe thermal stresses and support loads. 2 - Register your new account. m Part 2 – Pipe (cont. ♦Single load rating at β= 2. During high heat loads, the PCM changes from solid to liquid, absorbing the heat with its latent heat. Normal stress caused by axial force F Z where: F Z axial force [N, lb]. 12 Kgs/Sheet. Calculate amount of bricks for building different size walls, number of brick lanes upright and load for foundation. For your particular column (3 1/2 extra strong steel pipe) and length (7 ft) the value for the allowable concentric load is 63,000 lbs. For Walk-in Coolers & Freezers Loads based on continuous operation and include allowances for avg. Note: Volume is per foot of construction tube. The wheel-chart provides speedy access to valve, flange and fitting dimensions. Type of pipe (Copper, steel, cast iron, insulated, non-insulated, etc. Includes 53 different calculations. Learn the secrets of rational, math and sequence practiced by best consulting companies in Canada while designing HVAC systems for commercial and institutional buildings!. To calculate the working loads, you need to use the spring rate. 5- 2 mm sheet thickness,and also please tell us about other design calculations like speed of roller, bottom roller distance etc. Multiply the pipe material's yield strength, measured in pounds per square inch, by the wall thickness, measured in inches. 1 Characteristic Strength A number of different (material specific) strength parameters can be used for structural design,. Unfortunately I couldn't find a similar joint in any technical reference to verify it. ASTM D2412 is a testing standard used to determine the stiffness and load deflection of plastic pipe. Please update the following information as it applies to your tower needs:. 2 plf In this truss example, there are few assumptions made for the calculations to work. How do you calculate how much load a particular pipe support can take? Each pipe support has its own load carrying capacities depending upon its function. Enter your values: Flow Rate. Standard Specification for Joints for Concrete Pipe and Manholes, Using Rubber Gaskets. The ultimate load is defined as the maximum line load that the pipe will support in a two or three edge-bearing test and shall be at least 1. Standard Pipe Schedules ( Pipe Sizes ) Chart Data Pressure Vessel Design & Engineering. • Back Ground Information ; Useful revision and helpful for understanding some of the above calculations. Bridge Design Manager, INDOT. en: pipe bend force fluid velocity pressure. These are typically steady or sustained types of loads such as internal fluid pressure, external pressure, gravitational forces acting on the pipe such as weight of pipe and fluid, forces due to relief or blow down, pressure waves generated due to water/steam hammer effects. Type of scaffold materials like cup lock or pipe fittings or ring lock etc. xls 03_Capacitor kVAR Calculator. Calculate amount of bricks for building different size walls, number of brick lanes upright and load for foundation. If HL-93 Live Load cannot be supported by pipe for this load case – Provide maximum allowable Live Load for this installation. Used in a choker hitch, it would have a capacity of 375 lbs. a sustained load when there is an especially weak location in the system. Wind pressure for various elevations is used to calculate wind force. Calculate the invert elevation Upper invert elevation = ground elv. Single-line piping diagrams on a floor-by-floor basis. Low cost engineering calculations software available for convection heat transfer coefficients, pipe flow/friction factor calculations, partially full pipe flow calculations, watershed time of concentration, rational method, orifice and venturi meter flow rate calculations, open channel flow measurement, activated sludge wastewater. Manufacturers often paint the weight per foot on the pipe making weight calculations simple. Rooftop Package Units • Cooling capacities 1 ton = 12,000 btu/hour 1 ton = 400 CFM (+/- 20% flexibility) unit capacity = total capacity NOT sensible capacity. Standard Calculation Procedure 1. This Calculator is for Standard (STD) Weight Steel Pipe and Empty or Full of Contents, with/without Insulation, and with/without Ice Buildup. The term pipe flow in this course is being taken to mean flow under pressure in a pipe, piping system, or closed conduit with a non-circular cross-section. (2) Calculate hanger loads. The piping and cable tray loads may be based on actual loads or approximated by using uniform loads. -thick material being bent over a 0. • Calculating Volume Using Solids Of Revolution. Type of pipe (Copper, steel, cast iron, insulated, non-insulated, etc. the pipe may be under load if the tank nozzle moves up or down. This is designed so that the designer can accurately model any likely combination of plant and equipment which may load the pipe. From residential to heavy-duty industrial sites, NDS is a industry leader innovative water management solutions. This is why Anvil is a trusted, go-to source for all industrial, mechanical, fire protection, and oil & gas piping systems. Shear strength of bolts. Document design calculations for pipe support referenced in calculations title. For external loads on saddle supported vessels. 2 of Pipe Stress Engineering published by Peng Engineering. Weight of Pipe Calculator. The load factor is:. If HL-93 Live Load cannot be supported by pipe for this load case – Provide maximum allowable Live Load for this installation. The calculation is applicable only for uniform pipe without any attached concentrated weight, such as a valve. Here are the particulars: Steel pipe 60psi, 3" inner diameter, 3. This spreadsheet bundle contains the U. Load Factor Operating Rating --- Maximum permissible live load for the structure, suitable for one-time or Limited Crossings. 2-1, Saturation (S) Factors for Calculating Petroleum Liquid Loading Losses. for rectangular and cylindrical (round) shapes. Manufacturers often paint the weight per foot on the pipe making weight calculations simple. Thermal Systems provides boiler calculations, for steam boiler loads, boiler efficiency, hot water loads, thermal load, boiler operating cost. beam load (udl) empty space (udl) int. 5% variation of wall thickness due to manufacturing defects. Calculate the total live load acting on the pipe in pounds per linear foot. , the designer shall supply the load parameters as calculated by the computer or manual pipe stress analysis and the dimensions of the trunnion. This pipe stiffness value exceeds common flexible pipe stiffnesses. Welcome to the Multi-span Beam Calculator. Wind Load Calculator Excel Spreadsheet ASCE705W ASCE 7-05 Written for analysis of air load for code and structures for Spreadsheets program written in MS-Excel. NOTE: The breaker must be sized no larger in amp size than the ampacity rating of a conductor after de-ration calculations have been performed to find the maximum ampacity of. Enter information including type of fuel, pressure source, pipe type and size, and run length and load to calculate the pressure at the start and end of the run. Thrust block forces on pipe bends anchor due to liquid velocity and internal pressure - online resulting force calculator Sponsored Links In a piping structure without adequately support fluid flow velocities and internal pressures may create intolerable forces and tensions. Calculating wind loads is important in design of the wind force-resisting system, including structural members, components, and cladding, against shear, sliding, overturning, and uplift actions. If you leave any cells empty they will be calculated as zero. Bending Moment Calculator Calculate bending moment & shear force for simply supported beam. Is the connection adequate for carrying the factored load of 65 kips. xls 11_Residential Load. Software system dPIPE Flexibility and stress analysis of piping systems. This is the reason when designing the vessel nozzle connection, the piping loads are often considered as sustained or primary load. industrial process instruments and controls: tel: 1-925-706-7433 fax: 1-925-706-2583. This calculator was developed in accordance with the equations and procedures found in the Handbook of PVC Pipe Design and Construction (5th Edition). A typical heat load calculation consists of surface heat loss calculation and heat loss due to air infiltration. Plot the tension load, specified minimum yield strength, and maximum allowable tensile load values on axial load vs. 6*ro^2+t^2)^0. 2 classifies partition load as a live load, with no apparent explanation in the commentary. 5 at all depths. Type of scaffold materials like cup lock or pipe fittings or ring lock etc. 3 Pressure Piping […]. The fire case scenario was considered, as it is the worst-case scenario in the studies. When parking on an incline the lower axle has a higher load than it does on the level. Design of Piping Loads On Rotating Machinery Nozzles May 2014 Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 11 4. Recommended Grate Free Areas for Various Outlet Pipe Sizes 1 1/2 2. All piping systems are inevitably subjected to various kinds of loads in their design life cycle. assuming zero load due to the reaming assembly, the rig load is comprised of the maximum drill string load, the maximum above-ground pipe load, and a minimal load resulting from the length of the pull section in the hole. Press the 'Calculate' button associated with that section. " See also ANSI B31. The calculator below can used to calculate the resulting force in a piping bend: Metric Units. 3 of ASME B31. However it is the full bellows thrust area which determines the buckling pressure. - Input Values as Fractions. Equation 2 is a function of this integration. It arises from the shear force, the component of force vector parallel to the material cross section. where flexible or rigid pavement is installed directly on top of pipe. Online calculator to quickly determine Condensate Load From Piping at Start-up. Loads applied "Along Y-Y" are applied parallel to the Y-Y axis of the steel section. Calculate the section modulus for the different beams which you could use. iLevel brings the most innovative and trusted products for residential construction together under one roof. Equations displayed for easy reference. Pipe View All ; Stainless Steel Pipe. I General rules The following load combinations and partial load factors should be used in carrying out the analysis of beams. Enter your values: Flow Rate: Diameter: Pipe Length:. Forklift lifting capacity calculator. Generally speaking, I (Moment of Inertia) is a geometrical value, used for stiffness determination and is therefore important to determine deflections in the vertical cross section and is used for more general calculations when compared to section modulus which is usually used to determine the resistance in the horizontal cross section against. How do you calculate how much load a particular pipe support can take? Each pipe support has its own load carrying capacities depending upon its function. Wind pressure for various elevations is used to calculate wind force. There are some additions to the ASCE 7, such as Tsunami Loads, and refined seismic Loads. Accuracy is very important: undersized service wiring is dangerous and may lead to voltage issues, but oversized conductors represent an unnecessary expense. The gasket gets seated once, this is the load that the flange sees with each application and removal of pressure. This paper presents a new calculation method that can calculate the load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load. Concrete pipe is designed and manufactured for simple connection to reduce installation time. Calculate the total live load acting on the pipe. Load Combinations Tab. com Buried Pipe Calculator (excel application) has been designed as a training tool to help users to calculate code stress and strain and their corresponding criteria for both. This is the proof load in kilonewtons per metre of pipe length, per metre of nominal pipe diameter. Please update the following information as it applies to your tower needs:. Download also: Pump Head Calculation Spreadsheet and Pipe Sizer Software In chilled water system the chilled water circulates through a chilled water loop and through coils located in air handlers. If you want to do calculations for a horizontal cylinder, then go to this link: Horizontal Cylinder Calculator. The wheel-chart provides speedy access to valve, flange and fitting dimensions. You can calculate wind loads from wind speeds but to get an accurate answer you need much more information. Download free Excel spreadsheets for engineering calculations. 6 should be used if the tank truck is in “dedicated normal service”. 4 (b) and (c), and Department of Transportation Guide for Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, Para. 5% of pipe wall • It allows 12. Closer hanger spacing may be required where additional valves and fittings increase the load. Wind Loads are important consideration in structural engineering in the design of a structure. This calculator was developed in accordance with the equations and procedures found in the Handbook of PVC Pipe Design and Construction (5th Edition). The insulation is tailored to fit for copper, iron, and PVC pipe applications. In pipe railings, where posts and rails are of identical material and section and where post spacing usually varies between 3 feet and 6 feet, Load Proportion Factor is fairly uniform and the greatest proportion of a concentrated load carried by one post can be estimated as follows:. As per this section, to determine wall thickness and stiffening requirements for straight pipe under external pressure, the procedure outlined in the BPV Code, Section VIII, Division 1, UG-28 through UG-30 shall be followed, using as the design length L, the running centerline length between. The B31-E code for piping is covered. Updated: January, 2019. Materials other than concrete and steel are flammable and/or do not perform well at elevated temperatures. You'll need to give us a diagram of some kind. You can also apply a vertical load so that the module can calculate the vertical bearing load on the footing for each load combination. This small Java applet uses design rules according to [], [], and [], to size a tuned pipe for a 2 stroke piston engine. the load can be distributed over a large area at the top and at the bottom of the pipe. - cover - pipe diameter = 90. This specification covers reinforced concrete pipe, D-load culvert, storm drain, and sewer pipe for the conveyance of sewage, industrial wastes, and storm water. The torque to tappe the pipe was 25 Nm and rotation speed was 72 rpm. 1: Stairs: Per item 35, “stairs and exits—all others” shall be designed for a 100-psf uniform load or a 300-lb point load over an area of 4 in. We have the expertise and facility to supply you with the steel pipe you need. EMS Energy Marketing Service Serving the HVAC industry since 1986 HVAC load Calculation Software Quickly and easily performs: Whole house (block) or room-by-room loads Sizes duct system Selects equipment Performs cost analysis and ROI “So easy, your dog could do it!” This HVAC load calculation software has been developed using sound engineering principles as prescribed … Continue reading "". The bD in the denominator of Equation 1 yields the desired units of pounds per square inch in expressing the truck load. 02_Voltage Drop Calculator. Established in 1981, Star® Pipe Products is headquartered in Houston, Texas and has been delivering quality products and services for over 37 years. Includes 53 different calculations. Register your account on registration page. Consider an application involving 0. pdf), Text File (. 0 (PDF) LRFR of In-Service Metal Pipe Structures Calculator. This easy to use calculator will display the wind speed by location via a wind speed map as prescribed by the above building codes. 5 for legal loads. Piping Technology & Products, Inc. - This weight calculator is intended for approximation only and does not necessarily indicate the exact weight. -thick material being bent over a 0. Pipe size DN80 (NPS 3) pipe or larger. 40 m \lower invert elevation = Upper invert elevation – fall of sewer. Trident Steel's Barlow's Formula calculator allows you to calculate bursting pressure quickly and easily. It will only be used overhead in my garage as an occasional lifting point or sling support. Required thicknesses are calculated. Nickel Pipe View All ; 200 Nickel Pipe; 400 Nickel Pipe; 600 Nickel Pipe. Theres a 30,000lb weight being applied evenly across the top face in a downward direction. Clamping Force Calculator Clamping force refers to the force applied to a mold by the clamping unit of an injection molding machine. 316L Pipe Sizing Calculations and Tables 316L Pipe Sizing Calculations - 4 - R = 6 D R o = 6. 5 for legal loads. Location of all gravity load pipe supports and spacing requirements. 25 times the proof load. Owens Corning® SSL II® with ASJ Max Fiberglas™ Pipe Insulation is molded out of heavy density resin bonded inorganic glass fibers that come in one-piece, 36" (914mm) long, hinged sections. For flange analysis – to calculate the accurate operating bolt load To estimate SIFs and flexibilities accurately for your piping analysis. 2 of Pipe Stress Engineering published by Peng Engineering. The purpose of this tool is to assist industry professionals in the evaluation and selection of HDPE pipe by performing design calculations documented in the PPI-Handbook of Polyethylene Pipe, 2nd Edition. Calculations can be done in both metric and imperial units. (2) Calculate hanger loads. 675*t, which provides for the use of traditional formulas for stress calculation. 2, whichever produces the greater load effects. Result will be displayed. 25 times the proof load. Calculate the best way your cargo is loaded / optimized in a container. Is the connection adequate for carrying the factored load of 65 kips. manual calculations) consider the loads caused by a sudden change in pressure, and follow this pressure change as it moves through the pipe from its source to a termination point at roughly the speed of sound. Our BTU Calculator can help you calculate the BTU (British Thermal Units) energy requirement of your room and suggest the best options for the output you’re looking for. The provisions contained in this guide apply to the following kinds of buried pipe:. m Part 2 – Pipe (cont. Increased nozzle loads are a cause of misalignment and increased wear and vibration rates in pumps. For bearings under rotating loads or direction indeterminate loads, a tight fit is recommended; but for static loads, a transition fit or loose fit should be sufficient (see Table 7. The loads exerted on equipment are directly related to how the equipment and piping are supported. Reynolds Number: 44 Re DV DV Q m DD ρ µ ν πν π µ = = = = where. Manufacturers often paint the weight per foot on the pipe making weight calculations simple. Online calculator to quickly determine Condensate Load From Piping at Start-up. protection of piping systems and equipment against a wide range of dynamic loads (Reinsch et al, 2007; Kostarev et al, 1993). Wood truss construction drawings shall be prepared by a registered and licensed engineer as per IRC 2012 Sec. Register your account on registration page. By only looking at the bottom side of the kevlar wrap as in Figure 1, where the dotted line is the fiber going behind the nylon core, we can calculate the angle, , the fiber is at. Jeremy Hunter, P. However it is the full bellows thrust area which determines the buckling pressure. Ensure resulting movement of randomly installed systems is not harmful to joints at changes in directions or branch con-. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Standard Specification for Reinforced Concrete Low-Head Pressure Pipe. Top is subjected to. Structural framing. Piping designers always want higher allowable nozzle loads to simplify piping designs while machinery manufacturers want smaller allowable nozzle loads to ensure good alignment, higher reliability and fewer complaints about operation. Eccentric Loading Figure 1-15 This is a condition where the force F is applied vertically to the cell,. To Calculate: Enter roof area, roof slope, and rainfall intensity. Pipe Solutions Thermal Expansion Guide. NOMENCULATURE OF APPENDIX-P 23. Immerse the rod into PVC pipe gradually. Page 3 of 76 Section VIII, Division 1, 2004 Edition, 2005 Addenda. Chilled water piping utilizes parallel piping systems with a two-pipe main distribution system arranged in loop. Wind, seismic snow etc loads are not a concern in this case. Applying a static load to the pile head caused the dragload in the pile to be reduced by the magnitude of the load applied. 7 PIPE AND FITTINGS. Seen thumper from 1/3 to same size as boilers. Calculates energy loss on an hourly basis. Wind pressure for various elevations is used to calculate wind force. Shear stress, often denoted by τ (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section. Information concerning a hypothetical insulation system (e. The pipe size is 8" and the maximum allowable temperature of outer wall of insulation is 50 0 C. The correctness of the calculation determines whether the gas pipeline will function optimally. So Stress Analysis can not be. Bending Moment Calculator Calculate bending moment & shear force for simply supported beam. Modularity Because of the modular nature of concrete pipe, piping systems of nearly any size can be accommodated. Calculation Details Step 1: Determine Inlet Properties Using the Steam Property Calculator, properties are determined using Inlet Pressure and the selected second parameter (Temperature, Specific Enthalpy, Specific Entropy, or Quality). Operating loads only - used for cycle life calculations (seating HG is removed). The pipe, transporting whatever type of fluid, rests on these supports or hangers, which removes stress on the pipes. , uneven weight distribution) can be handled safely. Our Subsidiaries U. Based on input variables, the calculator will provide theoretical loads (in psi) and pipe deflection expressed as a percentage of diameter. ACT’s Phase Change Material heat sink calculator provides initial scoping estimates for your thermal storage requirements, including approximate volume, weight, and temperature profile. The torque to tappe the pipe was 25 Nm and rotation speed was 72 rpm. 15 up to 24 inch ID • 1. 3 (2014) ASME B31. Either you divide the load by the spring rate to calculate distance traveled, or you multiply the distance traveled by the spring rate to calculate the load. Importance of Load Calculation. WHOLE HOUSE HEAT LOSS CALCULATION. We have used Barlow's formula, to compute the pressure containing ability of your pipe with its current defect and then calculate how many layers of our composite material are needed to reinforce the hoop strength of your pipe to operate it at your desired pressure. Check local codes. Thus, the single wave theory was not reliable. Seismic Loads. How do you calculate how much load a particular pipe support can take? Each pipe support has its own load carrying capacities depending upon its function. pipe rack load calculation description cable tray load load item empty space (udl) int. - Input Values as Fractions. Wind pressure for various elevations is used to calculate wind force. beam load (udl) empty space (udl) int. (5) Check clearance between the hanger components and nearby piping, electrical cable trays, conduits, ventilating ducts, and equipment. Methodology. Standard Specifications 207-2 Reinforced. Report options - Comprehensive one page summary or full calculation details. The Design Professional shall determine whether the the 2 to 1 ratio is sufficient or if exterior surface flow calculations are required. To illustrate how critical the design is, take the example of an 18" dia x 32’ STD wall pipe spreader bar with the CG of the load at the center of the bar. Or you can choose an Eaves Gutter size and calculate the corresponding down pipe size, and the required number. A two 2-by-6 standard beam has actual dimensions of 1. Axle Loads. Pipe branch reinforcement calculations per ASME B31. 2 of Pipe Stress Engineering published by Peng Engineering. Ordinarily, it is not necessary to call out steel clearances on D-Load pipe. August 30th to September 1st, 2016. Contact Us: +1 (281) 241-9418 Toll Free: (855) 591-0906 Fax: +1 (713) 731-8640 [email protected] manual calculations) consider the loads caused by a sudden change in pressure, and follow this pressure change as it moves through the pipe from its source to a termination point at roughly the speed of sound. Beam Deflection Calculators - Solid Rectangular Beams, Hollow Rectangular Beams, Solid Round Beams. design equations suitable for hand calculations, and where necessary, guidance for finite element analysis. Pipe Solutions Thermal Expansion Guide. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. 2) do explicitly require that the partition load be include in the effective seismic weight of the building. 5) for a given legal load. Consider an application involving 0. The required pressure piping wall thickness may be calculated according to ASME B31. So the final load-bearing value of single tube shall divide 2=3. Use it to calculate bolt loads and. Vertical Load. Simple beam deflection calculator. Online calculator to quickly determine Pipe Sizing by Velocity for Water. 0260 = WEIGHT PER METRE. bolts Solution Step I. 0 Introduction to Nozzle Loads. 02_Voltage Drop Calculator. • One can also measure the distance around the pipe with a tape. Independent Pipe is a reliable buyer and seller of new and used surplus steel pipe. This spreadsheet bundle contains the U. Casing Specifications Casing is specified by: grade, weight per unit length, outside diameter and wall thickness, type of coupling, and length of joint. Equations displayed for easy reference. (5) Check clearance between the hanger components and nearby piping, electrical cable trays, conduits, ventilating ducts, and equipment. To calculate the load, is very important the total weigth because it will play an importat role in case of seismic loads for example. (3) Determine thermal movement of the piping at each hanger location. Condensate Load Calculation November 11, 2012 December 18, 2018 Rifka Aisyah Calculation I just read some pages on Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations 2nd edition , written by Nicholas P. The PPI Plastic Pressure Pipe Design Calculator was developed by the association's Building and Construction Division Members collaborated to provide the tool by reviewing formulas and manufacturers’ proprietary calculation systems The calculator follows ASTM International and CSA Group (formerly. Equations displayed for easy reference. PVC has a much higher stiffness (modulus) compared to other plastic pipe which limits long term deformation under soil load. American Concrete Pipe Association Fill-Height Tables: Concrete Pipe Design Manual. The pipe's size and the thickness of its wall increase the pressure that it can withstand. beam load (udl) empty space (udl) int. Spreader bars are the best choice for loads where the lift points are far apart and load control is important. Let’s say that a total of 4,000 kilowatt-hours were used during the billing period. Hello All As a new member of piping design team I have to compute and deliver loads imposed by piping on a T-shaped pipe rack of petrochemical plant. For a snug fit at the outside of the tube, enter 0 Cut Tube Wall Thick and grind inside of tube to fit. What we need is P' which is defined as the equivalent axial load which would be required to produce a maximum bending moment (M) in the column. Interactive calculation of heating/cooling loads. Critical Use Cases For Finite Element Analysis:. In the field of solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. 0 Introduction to Nozzle Loads. 5 Inch 2 Inch 3 Inch 4 Inch 6 Inch 8 Inch 10 Inch 12 Inch 14 Inch 16 Inch 18 Inch 20 Inch 24 Inch 26 Inch 28 Inch 30 Inch 32 Inch 34 Inch 36 Inch 38 Inch 40 Inch 42 Inch 44 Inch 46 Inch 48 Inch 50 Inch 52 Inch 54 Inch 56 Inch 58 Inch 60 Inch. This Calculator is for Standard (STD) Weight Steel Pipe and Empty or Full of Contents, with/without Insulation, and with/without Ice Buildup. What used to be a pencil-breaking task is now mouse-click easy. Hydro test loads, if applicable for the line. 3 Conditions Requiring Calculation. d o - outside diameter (m, in) d i - inside diameter (m, in) ρ m - density of piping material (kg/m 3, lb/in 3). Stationary loads, with no bouncing or swinging, and usually load hung from 2 points at 1-2 feet apart rather than. Angular loads can be caused by mounts that are out of level, a nonrigid foundation, thermal expansion/contraction, struc-ture deflection under load, and the unavoidable deflection of the load cell itself. Thermal Systems provides boiler calculations, for steam boiler loads, boiler efficiency, hot water loads, thermal load, boiler operating cost. One reason is the rather large uncertainties in the wave load predictions for ships as well as lack of experience. If the connection is modeled as rigid, the resulting nozzle loads increase significantly which is not realistic. (3) Determine thermal movement of the piping at each hanger location. 2 and designed according to the minimum requirements of ANSI/TPI. The total amp load that the NEC allows a conductor to carry and be considered to meet the minimum safety standards after de-ration calculations are performed as required. in [2], [3] and [4]). For example: 10" construction tube 6 feet long: 6 ft x 0. Any hydraulic calculation performed is a determination of the parameters of the future gas pipeline. Pipe Solutions. Nickel Pipe View All ; 200 Nickel Pipe; 400 Nickel Pipe; 600 Nickel Pipe. on a 5 pound pressure drop for the entire piping run, from 50' to 250'. Bellows: Metallic & Fabric Expansion Joints, Bellows Sweco Fab: ASME Vessels, Pig Launchers, Spectacle Blinds Pipe Shields: Pre-Insulated Pipe Supports, Slides, Guides & Anchors Fronek Anchor/Darling: Snubbers, Sway Struts & Sway Braces. Both should be done separately for every room in the house, so having a floor plan with dimensions of all walls, floors, ceiling, as well as doors and windows is a good place to start. The reason that calculation methods are not used is. The incoming service capacity of electrical installations is determined based on the load calculation. 2 CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM PIPE SPAN 2. Fusible PVC® pipe provides a monolithic, fully restrained, gasket- and leak-free piping system. Ohm's law formula. Design Loads The forces that influence pressure vessel design are internal/external pressure; dead loads due to the weight of the vessel and contents; external loads from piping and attachments, wind, and earthquakes; operating-type loads such as vibration and sloshing of the contents; and startup and shutdown loads.